Energy-efficient Economic and Ecological Mobility

4EMobility: November 2009 – December 2013

During the last decades, a clear trend formed in industry of constantly driving industrial research towards new tailored materials as well as cost-effective, function-oriented, highly integrated and light-weight components. The driving forces behind this trend are the high requirements regarding efficiency, environment, safety as well as comfort.

Project Overview

Projekt-Regio13 2

Advanced composite materials are very promising allowing to translate the before mentioned high requirements into novel components. Especially carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) show a great potential due to their increased stiffness and strength-to-weight ratio.

As a result of the manufacturing process, these materials tend to have pores inside. Pores are defined as inclusions of air. Porosity is defined as the volume of pores compared to the volume of the specimen including fibers, resin and pores. Porosity has an impact on the mechanical properties of a specimen such as compressive and interlaminar shear strength as well as the elasticity modulus of the material. An important task in quality control is to quantify and study the porosity of samples of such materials. Besides quantitative porosity, the distribution and shape factors of pores are important properties for CFRP analysis. For example porosity in a specific layer may be more critical than a homogenous distribution of pores.

In this project, we develop a visualization pipeline that is customized for the interactive exploration and visual analysis of CFRP specimens. The workflow is based on X-Ray computed tomography. The main contributions of this paper are:

  • Porosity analysis of CFRP is achieved in the pre-computation step of the porosity determination. The local pore properties like volume, dimensions and shape factor are calculated automatically and enable a classification of pores.
  • Porosity maps allow for fast porosity evaluation of the specimen and for comparison to corresponding ultrasonic and active thermography images. NDT practitioners are able to easily analyze the homogeneity of porosity in the specimen with these maps.
  • Interactive exploration of a CFRP specimen is done in a two stages drill-down approach. A region of interest is selected on the porosity maps. Refinement of the selection using parallel coordinates leads to a visualization for an effective porosity analysis.
  • Porosity maps are calculated as specific projections along the coordinate axes. These may not be the ideal projection directions. Therefore we propose an optimal projection direction search (best viewpoint) which maximize pore overlap in the result image.


  • Universtiy of Applied Sciences Upper Austria
  • Fischer Advanced Composite Components AG, AT


Projekt-Regio13 1

Funding Bodies: Land Oberösterreich und EFRE - Europäischer Fond für Regionale Entwicklung
Funding Programme: Regionale Wettbewerbsfähigkeit OÖ 2007-2013 (Regio 13)


Johann Kastner
Phone: +43 50804-14110
E-Mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 


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