In recent years the methodologies of metrology and dimensional measurement were expanded by introducing the novel technology of industrial 3D X-ray computed tomography (3DCT). 3DCT is an established method for visualization and for non-destructive-testing (NDT) of industrial components and has recently gained importance in the area of dimensional measurement for industrial components. 3DCT provides full geometric information of a specimen including inner or hidden structures. A single scan non-destructively characterizes a specimen and detects material defects and geometrical irregularities of the manufacturing process. Furthermore, the typical limitations of tactile and optical coordinate measurement technology can be avoided (e.g., problems with deformable surfaces, reflecting glass probes).